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Endodontics – Root Canal

Endodontics - Root Canal

To understand endodontic or root canal treatment, it helps to first understand the anatomy of the tooth. The part of the tooth visible in your mouth is called the crown and the part covered by bone and gum is the root.

The crown of the tooth is made up of the hard white enamel layer and a thicker dentin layer. Both these hard layers protect the innermost soft tissues of the tooth called the pulp. The dental pulp contains blood vessels and nerves within and extends from the crown to the tips of the root or roots.

When is Root Canal Treatment Needed ?

Root canal treatment involves the removal of the pulp tissues from the tooth in the event that it gets infected or inflamed. The pulp can be infected or inflamed due to either deep decay or an extensive restoration that involves the pulp; cracked or fractured tooth due to trauma; excessive wear of enamel and dentine exposing the pulp and sometimes as a result of severe gum disease.

Signs of pulp damage may include pain, prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, discolouration of the tooth, swelling, tenderness of the overlying gums or a bad taste in the mouth. On the other hand, there may be no symptoms at all. If pulp inflammation or infection is left untreated, it can eventually cause pain, swelling and loss of the supporting bone.

Advantages of Root Canal Treatment:


  • Root canal treatment saves teeth that would otherwise have been extracted.
  • After root canal treatment, the tooth is pulpless – it has no vital tissues within. However, there are vital tissues surrounding the root (e.g. the gum, periodontal membrane and supporting bone).
  • A root-canal-treated tooth can function normally and can be maintained with routine dental care and oral hygiene measures.

What is Root Canal Treatment ?

Removal of the infected or inflamed pulp is the first step in saving the tooth. Under local anesthetic, an opening is made in the crown of the tooth to get access to the infected or inflamed pulp within.

Using small, specially designed hard or rotary files, the root canals are cleaned and shaped to a form that can be sealed. Debris with the canal is removed by flushing with an anti-bacterial solution.

The canals are finally filled or sealed with an inert material called gutta-percha. The tooth should be restored to full shape and function by either a permanent filling or a crown, depending on how much of the tooth is left. This should be done as soon as possible as there could be a risk of tooth fracture due to biting forces.

All root canal treatment procedures are done by isolating the tooth with a rubber dam to provide a clean and saliva-free environment. Root canal treatment may be done in single or multiple visits depending on tooth complexity. In between treatment appointments, medicament may be placed within the canals and the tooth is covered with a temporary filling.

Often, X-rays are taken to determine the length of the root and to monitor the various treatment stages.